<== Treaties of Guadalupe Hildago ==>
Signed February 2, 1848, The Treatises of Guadalupe Hildago ended the Mexican/American War of 1846-1848 and ceded lands North of the Rio Grande River along with territory that makes up Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah along with parts of Colorado and Nevada to the United States.
The war was largely the result of Mexico's refusal to recognize the independence of Texas. The United States annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845. Mexican authorities considered this an act of war and skirmished quickly broke out. The United States Declare War against Mexico on May 13, 1846.
Mexico was ill equipped to engage in a war and had little effective control of the territory which was ruled largely by independent Native American tribes.
The US quickly took control of Sante Fe, NM.
In June 1846, English speaking settlers in Alta California rebelled and created a short lived "Republic of California." On July 9th, the California rebels joined the California Battalion led by John C. Fremont ending the California Republic after just three weeks.
The U.S. Navy's Pacific Squadron did not hear of the declaration of war until August 12, 1846 after which it captured Monterey and established blockades down to Baja California.
In 1848, The US Amry, led by Major General Winfield Scott, marched from Veracruz to Mexico City in 1848.
The Peace Treaty established the border between Mexico and the United States. The US paid $15 million dollars in compensation for damages, assumed $3.25 in debt from Mexico and promised to end skirmishes of Native tribes living in the annexed regions against Mexico.
The Gadsen Purchase of 1853 ceded the areas of Southern Arizona including Tucson and Yuma to the United States, finalizing the current US/Mexican Border.
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